Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

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Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of presentation
Basis of presentation. The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of only normal recurring adjustments or otherwise disclosed herein) considered necessary to present fairly the Company’s results of operations, financial position and cash flows have been made. The results of operations and cash flows for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations and cash flows that may be reported for the remainder of 2017 or any future periods. The unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016.
Principles of consolidation
Principles of consolidation. The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of OPKO Health, Inc. and of our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates
Use of estimates. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ significantly from these estimates.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents include short-term, interest-bearing instruments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of purchase. We also consider all highly liquid investments with original maturities at the date of purchase of 90 days or less as cash equivalents. These investments include money markets, bank deposits, certificates of deposit and U.S. treasury securities.
Inventories
Inventories. Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined by the first-in, first-out method. We consider such factors as the amount of inventory on hand, estimated time required to sell such inventories, remaining shelf-life, and current market conditions to determine whether inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Inventories at our diagnostics segment consist primarily of purchased laboratory supplies, which is used in our testing laboratories. Inventory obsolescence expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 was $5.0 million and $0.2 million, respectively.
Pre-launch inventories. We may accumulate commercial quantities of certain product candidates prior to the date we anticipate that such products will receive final U.S. FDA approval.  The accumulation of such pre-launch inventories involves the risk that such products may not be approved for marketing by the FDA on a timely basis, or ever.  This risk notwithstanding, we may accumulate pre-launch inventories of certain products when such action is appropriate in relation to the commercial value of the product launch opportunity.  In accordance with our policy, this pre-launch inventory is expensed.
Goodwill and intangible assets
Goodwill and intangible assets. Goodwill represents the difference between the purchase price and the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired accounted for by the acquisition method of accounting and arose from our acquisitions. Refer to Note 4. Goodwill, in-process research and development (“IPR&D”) and other intangible assets acquired in business combinations, licensing and other transactions at both September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016 was $2.1 billion.
Assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations, licensing and other transactions are generally recognized at the date of acquisition at their respective fair values. We determined the fair value of intangible assets, including IPR&D, using the “income method.”
Goodwill is tested at least annually for impairment, or when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable, by assessing qualitative factors or performing a quantitative analysis in determining whether it is more likely than not that its fair value exceeds the carrying value.
Intangible assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable, although IPR&D is required to be tested at least annually until the project is completed or abandoned. Upon obtaining regulatory approval, the IPR&D asset is then accounted for as a finite-lived intangible asset and amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life. If the project is abandoned, the IPR&D asset is charged to expense.
We reclassified $187.6 million of IPR&D related to Rayaldee from In-process research and development to Intangible assets, net in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets upon the FDA’s approval of Rayaldee in June 2016. The assets are being amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful life of approximately 12 years.
We amortize intangible assets with definite lives on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, ranging from 3 to 20 years. We use the straight-line method of amortization as there is no reliably determinable pattern in which the economic benefits of our intangible assets are consumed or otherwise used up.
Fair value measurements
Fair value measurements. The carrying amounts of our cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and short-term debt approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments. Investments that are considered available for sale as of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016 are carried at fair value. Our debt under the credit agreement with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. approximates fair value due to the variable rate of interest.
In evaluating the fair value information, considerable judgment is required to interpret the market data used to develop the estimates. The use of different market assumptions and/or different valuation techniques may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts. Accordingly, the estimates of fair value presented herein may not be indicative of the amounts that could be realized in a current market exchange.
Contingent consideration
Contingent consideration. Each period we revalue the contingent consideration obligations associated with certain prior acquisitions to their fair value and record increases in the fair value as contingent consideration expense and decreases in the fair value as a reduction in contingent consideration expense. Changes in contingent consideration result from changes in the assumptions regarding probabilities of successful achievement of related milestones, the estimated timing in which the milestones are achieved and the discount rate used to estimate the fair value of the liability. Contingent consideration may change significantly as our development programs progress, revenue estimates evolve and additional data is obtained, impacting our assumptions. The assumptions used in estimating fair value require significant judgment. The use of different assumptions and judgments could result in a materially different estimate of fair value which may have a material impact on our results from operations and financial position.
Derivative financial instruments
Derivative financial instruments. We record derivative financial instruments on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at their fair value and recognize the changes in the fair value in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations when they occur, the only exception being derivatives that qualify as hedges. For the derivative instrument to qualify as a hedge, we are required to meet strict hedge effectiveness and contemporaneous documentation requirements at the initiation of the hedge and assess the hedge effectiveness on an ongoing basis over the life of the hedge. At September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, our foreign currency forward contracts held to economically hedge inventory purchases did not meet the documentation requirements to be designated as hedges. Accordingly, we recognize all changes in the fair values of our derivatives instruments, net, in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment. Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets and includes amortization expense for assets capitalized under capital leases. The estimated useful lives by asset class are as follows: software - 3 years, machinery, medical and other equipment - 5-8 years, furniture and fixtures - 5-12 years, leasehold improvements - the lesser of their useful life or the lease term, buildings and improvements - 10-40 years, automobiles and aircraft - 3-15 years. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. Depreciation expense was $22.7 million and $25.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Assets held under capital leases are included within Property, plant and equipment, net in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and are amortized over the shorter of their useful lives or the expected term of their related leases.
Impairment of long-lived assets
Impairment of long-lived assets. Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, then an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset.
Income taxes
Income taxes. Income taxes are accounted for under the asset-and-liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and the respective tax bases and for operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in operations in the period that includes the enactment date.
We operate in various countries and tax jurisdictions globally.  For interim reporting purposes, we record income taxes based on the expected annual effective income tax rate taking into consideration global forecasted tax results.  For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, the tax rate differed from the U.S. federal statutory rate of 35% primarily due to the relative mix in earnings and losses in the U.S. versus foreign tax jurisdictions, the impact of certain discrete tax events and operating results in tax jurisdictions which do not result in a tax benefit.
We periodically evaluate the realizability of our net deferred tax assets. Our tax accruals are analyzed periodically and adjustments are made as events occur to warrant such adjustment. On December 29, 2016, the Israeli Parliament reduced the standard corporate income tax rate from 25% to 24%, effective January 1, 2017 and 23% effective January 1, 2018. The new rates have been used in determining Income tax benefit in 2017.
Revenue recognition
Revenue recognition. Revenue for laboratory services is recognized at the time test results are reported, which approximates when services are provided. Services are provided to patients covered by various third-party payer programs including various managed care organizations, as well as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Billings for services under third-party payer programs are included in revenue net of allowances for contractual discounts and allowances for differences between the amounts billed and estimated program payment amounts. Adjustments to the estimated payment amounts based on final settlement with the programs are recorded upon settlement as an adjustment to revenue. For the nine months ended September 30, 2017, approximately 31% of our revenues were derived directly from the Medicare and Medicaid programs.
We recognize revenue from product sales when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, collectability is reasonably assured, and the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, which is generally when goods are shipped and title and risk of loss transfer to our customers. Our estimates for sales returns and allowances are based upon the historical patterns of product returns and allowances taken, matched against the sales from which they originated, and our evaluation of specific factors that may increase or decrease the risk of product returns. Product revenues are recorded net of estimated rebates, chargebacks, discounts, co-pay assistance and other deductions (collectively, “Sales Deductions”) as well as estimated product returns. Allowances are recorded as a reduction of revenue at the time product revenues are recognized.
We launched Rayaldee in the U.S. through our dedicated renal sales force in November 2016. Rayaldee is distributed in the U.S. principally through the retail pharmacy channel, which initiates with the largest wholesalers in the U.S. (collectively, “Rayaldee Customers”). In addition to distribution agreements with Rayaldee Customers, we have entered into arrangements with many healthcare providers and payers that provide for government-mandated and/or privately-negotiated rebates, chargebacks and discounts with respect to the purchase of Rayaldee.
We lack the experiential data which would allow us to estimate Sales Deductions and product returns. Therefore, as of September 30, 2017, we have determined that we do not yet meet the criteria for the recognition of revenue for shipments of Rayaldee at the time of shipment to Rayaldee Customers as allowances for Sales Deductions and product returns are not known or cannot be reasonably estimated. We will not recognize revenue upon shipment until such time as we can reasonably estimate and record provisions for Sales Deductions and product returns utilizing historical information and market research projections.
During the nine months ended September 30, 2017, we did not recognize any product revenues related to Rayaldee sales. Payments received from Rayaldee Customers in advance of recognition of revenue are recorded as deferred revenue included in Accrued expenses in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The related deferred revenue balance as of September 30, 2017 was $6.5 million. The corresponding costs of product revenues for which we have not recognized product revenue have similarly not yet been reflected in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Revenue from transfer of intellectual property includes revenue related to the sale, license or transfer of intellectual property such as upfront license payments, license fees, milestone and royalty payments received through our license, and collaboration and commercialization agreements. We analyze our multiple-element arrangements to determine whether the elements can be separated and accounted for individually as separate units of accounting.
Non-refundable license fees for the out-license of our technology are recognized depending on the provisions of each agreement. We recognize non-refundable upfront license payments as revenue upon receipt if the license has standalone value and qualifies for treatment as a separate unit of accounting under multiple-element arrangement guidance. License fees with ongoing involvement or performance obligations that do not have standalone value are recorded as deferred revenue, included in Accrued expenses or Other long-term liabilities, when received and generally are recognized ratably over the period of such performance obligations only after both the license period has commenced and we have delivered the technology.
The assessment of our obligations and related performance periods requires significant management judgment. If an agreement contains research and development obligations, the relevant time period for the research and development phase is based on management estimates and could vary depending on the outcome of clinical trials and the regulatory approval process. Such changes could materially impact the revenue recognized, and as a result, management reviews the estimates related to the relevant time period of research and development on a periodic basis. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, revenue from transfer of intellectual property includes $11.2 million and $46.5 million of revenue, respectively related to the Pfizer Transaction. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016, revenue from transfer of intellectual property includes $17.7 million and $53.0 million of revenue, respectively related to the Pfizer Transaction. Refer to Note 12.
Revenue from milestone payments related to arrangements under which we have continuing performance obligations are recognized as Revenue from transfer of intellectual property upon achievement of the milestone only if all of the following conditions are met: the milestone payments are non-refundable; there was substantive uncertainty at the date of entering into the arrangement that the milestone would be achieved; the milestone payment is commensurate with either our performance to achieve the milestone or the enhancement of the value of the delivered item by us; the milestone relates solely to past performance; and the amount of the milestone payment is reasonable in relation to the effort expended or the risk associated with the achievement of the milestone. If any of these conditions are not met, the milestone payments are not considered to be substantive and are, therefore, deferred and recognized as Revenue from transfer of intellectual property over the term of the arrangement as we complete our performance obligations.
Concentration of credit risk and allowance for doubtful accounts
Concentration of credit risk and allowance for doubtful accounts. Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of accounts receivable. Substantially all of our accounts receivable are with either companies in the healthcare industry or patients. However, credit risk is limited due to the number of our clients as well as their dispersion across many different geographic regions.
While we have receivables due from federal and state governmental agencies, we do not believe that such receivables represent a credit risk since the related healthcare programs are funded by federal and state governments, and payment is primarily dependent upon submitting appropriate documentation. At September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, receivable balances (net of contractual adjustments) from Medicare and Medicaid were 22.0% and 22.9%, respectively, of our consolidated Accounts receivable, net.
The portion of our accounts receivable due from individual patients comprises the largest portion of credit risk. At September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, receivables due from patients represent approximately 2.4% and 4.1%, respectively, of our consolidated Accounts receivable, net.
We assess the collectability of accounts receivable balances by considering factors such as historical collection experience, customer credit worthiness, the age of accounts receivable balances, regulatory changes and current economic conditions and trends that may affect a customer’s ability to pay. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Our reported net income (loss) is directly affected by our estimate of the collectability of accounts receivable.
Equity-based compensation
Equity-based compensation. We measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. That cost is recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award. We record excess tax benefits, realized from the exercise of stock options, as cash flows from operations. Equity-based compensation arrangements to non-employees are recorded at their fair value on the measurement date. The measurement of equity-based compensation to non-employees is subject to periodic adjustment as the underlying equity instruments vest.
Research and development expenses
Research and development expenses. Research and development expenses include external and internal expenses, partially offset by third-party grants and fundings arising from collaboration agreements. External expenses include clinical and non-clinical activities performed by contract research organizations, lab services, purchases of drug and diagnostic product materials and manufacturing development costs. Research and development employee-related expenses include salaries, benefits and equity-based compensation expense. Other internal research and development expenses are incurred to support overall research and development activities and include expenses related to general overhead and facilities. We expense these costs in the period in which they are incurred. We estimate our liabilities for research and development expenses in order to match the recognition of expenses to the period in which the actual services are received. As such, accrued liabilities related to third party research and development activities are recognized based upon our estimate of services received and degree of completion of the services in accordance with the specific third party contract.
We record expense for in-process research and development projects acquired in asset acquisitions which have not reached technological feasibility and which have no alternative future use. For in-process research and development projects acquired in business combinations, the in-process research and development project is capitalized and evaluated for impairment until the development process has been completed. Once the development process has been completed the asset will be amortized over its remaining useful life.
Segment reporting
Segment reporting. Our chief operating decision-maker (“CODM”) is Phillip Frost, M.D., our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Our CODM reviews our operating results and operating plans and makes resource allocation decisions on a Company-wide or aggregate basis. We manage our operations in two reportable segments, pharmaceutical and diagnostics. The pharmaceutical segment consists of our pharmaceutical operations we acquired in Chile, Mexico, Ireland, Israel and Spain and our pharmaceutical research and development. The diagnostics segment primarily consists of clinical laboratory operations we acquired through the acquisition of BioReference and our point-of-care operations. There are no significant inter-segment sales. We evaluate the performance of each segment based on operating profit or loss. There is no inter-segment allocation of interest expense and income taxes.
Variable interest entities
Variable interest entities. The consolidation of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is required when an enterprise has a controlling financial interest. A controlling financial interest in a VIE will have both of the following characteristics: (a) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and (b) the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
Investments
Investments. We have made strategic investments in development stage and emerging companies. We record these investments as equity method investments or investments available for sale based on our percentage of ownership and whether we have significant influence over the operations of the investees. Investments for which it is not practical to estimate fair value and which we do not have significant influence are accounted for as cost method investments. For investments classified under the equity method of accounting, we record our proportionate share of their losses in Losses from investments in investees in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. Refer to Note 5. For investments classified as available for sale, we record changes in their fair value as unrealized gain or loss in Other comprehensive income (loss) based on their closing price per share at the end of each reporting period.
Recent accounting pronouncements
Recent accounting pronouncements. In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” ASU 2014-09, as amended, clarifies the principles for recognizing revenue and develops a common revenue standard for GAAP that removes inconsistencies and weaknesses in revenue requirements, provides a more robust framework for addressing revenue issues, improves comparability of revenue recognition practices across entities, industries, jurisdictions, and capital markets, provides more useful information to users of financial statements through improved disclosure requirements and simplifies the preparation of financial statements by reducing the number of requirements to which an entity must refer. ASU 2014-09 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017. Companies can choose to apply the ASU using either the full retrospective approach or a modified retrospective approach.
We have commenced our implementation analysis, including identification of revenue streams and reviews of customer contracts under ASU 2014-09’s framework. Our analysis includes reviewing current accounting policies and practices to identify potential differences that would result from applying the requirements under this new standard. The Company has reviewed certain contracts with its customers that the Company believes are representative of its revenue streams and continues to review additional contracts across its global business units. ASU 2014-09 requires increased disclosure which in turn is expected to require certain new processes. The determination of the impact of adoption of ASU 2014-09 on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and disclosures, is ongoing, and, as such, we have not yet concluded on a transition method and are not able to reasonably estimate the effect that the adoption of the new standard will have on our financial statements. Based on our preliminary assessment of this ASU, however, the majority of the amounts that were historically classified as provision for bad debts, primarily related to patient responsibility, will be considered an implicit price concession in determining net revenues. Accordingly, we will report uncollectible balances associated with individual patients as a reduction of the transaction price and therefore as a reduction in net revenues when historically these amounts were classified as provision for bad debts within Selling, general and administrative expenses.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, “Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory,” which changes the measurement principle for entities that do not measure inventory using the last-in, first-out (“LIFO”) or retail inventory method from the lower of cost or market to lower of cost and net realizable value. ASU 2015-11 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of ASU 2015-11 in the first quarter of 2017 did not have a significant impact on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes,” which requires deferred tax liabilities and assets to be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position.  The adoption of this ASU simplifies the presentation of deferred income taxes and reduces complexity without decreasing the usefulness of information provided to users of financial statements.  We early adopted the provisions of this ASU prospectively in the fourth quarter of 2015, and did not retrospectively adjust the prior periods.  The adoption of ASU 2015-17 did not have a significant impact on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, “Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10),” which addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. The ASU requires equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. ASU 2016-01 will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this new guidance on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842),” which will require organizations that lease assets with lease terms of more than 12 months to recognize assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by those leases on their balance sheets. The ASU will also require new qualitative and quantitative disclosures to help investors and other financial statement users better understand the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. ASU 2016-02 will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this new guidance on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, “Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718),” which simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment award transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, classification on the statement of cash flows and accounting for forfeitures. ASU 2016-09 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We adopted this standard in the first quarter of 2017. As required by ASU 2016-09, excess tax benefits are classified as an operating activity in our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows and we have applied this provision prospectively. In addition, we have elected to estimate forfeitures over the course of a vesting period, rather than account for forfeitures as they occur. We adjust our forfeiture estimates based on the number of share-based awards that ultimately vest on at least an annual basis. Upon the adoption of ASU 2016-09 in 2017, we recorded a cumulative-effect adjustment to increase our deferred tax assets and reduce our accumulated deficit by $32.5 million with respect to excess tax benefits recognized in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230),” which addresses the classification of eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. ASU 2016-15 will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this new guidance on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, “Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350),” which simplifies how an entity is required to test for goodwill impairment. ASU 2017-04 will be effective for annual or interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted after January 1, 2017. We are currently evaluating the impact of this new guidance on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.