Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of presentation. The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. and with the instructions to Form 10-K and of Regulation S-X.
Principles of consolidation. The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of OPKO Health, Inc. and of our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ significantly from these estimates.
Cash and cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents include short-term, interest-bearing instruments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of purchase. We also consider all highly liquid investments with original maturities at the date of purchase of 90 days or less as cash equivalents. These investments include money markets, bank deposits, certificates of deposit and U.S. treasury securities.
Inventories. Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined by the first-in, first-out method. We consider such factors as the amount of inventory on hand, estimated time required to sell such inventories, remaining shelf-life, and current market conditions to determine whether inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Inventories at our diagnostics segment consist primarily of purchased laboratory supplies, which is used in our testing laboratories. Inventory obsolescence expense for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was $1.9 million and $5.4 million, respectively.
Pre-launch inventories. We may accumulate commercial quantities of certain product candidates prior to the date we anticipate that such products will receive final U.S. FDA approval. The accumulation of such pre-launch inventories involves the risk that such products may not be approved for marketing by the FDA on a timely basis, or ever. This risk notwithstanding, we may accumulate pre-launch inventories of certain products when such action is appropriate in relation to the commercial value of the product launch opportunity. In accordance with our policy, this pre-launch inventory is expensed.
Goodwill and intangible assets. Goodwill represents the difference between the purchase price and the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired accounted for by the acquisition method of accounting. Refer to Note 5. Goodwill, in-process research and development (“IPR&D”) and other intangible assets acquired in business combinations, licensing and other transactions at both December 31, 2018 and 2017, was $2.0 billion.
Assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations, licensing and other transactions are generally recognized at the date of acquisition at their respective fair values. We determined the fair value of intangible assets, including IPR&D, using the “income method.”
Goodwill is tested at least annually for impairment, or when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable, by assessing qualitative factors or performing a quantitative analysis in determining whether it is more likely than not that its fair value exceeds the carrying value. Due to the loss of a significant customer in 2018, we recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $11.7 million in Asset impairment charges in our Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 to write the carrying amount of the FineTech reporting unit down to its estimated fair value due to the loss of a significant customer in 2018. No goodwill impairment was recorded for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 as a result of our testing.
Intangible assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable, although IPR&D is required to be tested at least annually until the project is completed or abandoned. Upon obtaining regulatory approval, the IPR&D asset is then accounted for as a finite-lived intangible asset and amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life. If the project is abandoned, the IPR&D asset is charged to expense.
We recorded an impairment charge of $10.1 million in Asset impairment charges in our Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 to write our IPR&D assets for Alpharen and OPK88004 down to their estimated fair value as a result of our testing. We recorded an impairment charge of $13.2 million in Asset impairment charges in our Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2017 to write our intangible asset for VARUBI™ down to its estimated fair value.
We amortize intangible assets with definite lives on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, ranging from 3 to 20 years. We use the straight-line method of amortization as there is no reliably determinable pattern in which the economic
benefits of our intangible assets are consumed or otherwise used up. Amortization expense was $67.9 million, $71.5 million and $64.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Amortization expense from operations for our intangible assets is expected to be $65.4 million, $59.2 million, $53.2 million, $52.9 million and $50.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively.
Fair value measurements. The carrying amounts of our cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and short-term debt approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments. Investments that are considered equity securities as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 are predominately carried at fair value. Our debt under the credit agreement with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. approximates fair value due to the variable rate of interest.
In evaluating the fair value information, considerable judgment is required to interpret the market data used to develop the estimates. The use of different market assumptions and/or different valuation techniques may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts. Accordingly, the estimates of fair value presented herein may not be indicative of the amounts that could be realized in a current market exchange. Refer to Note 18.
Contingent consideration. Each period we revalue the contingent consideration obligations associated with certain prior acquisitions to their fair value and record increases in the fair value as contingent consideration expense and decreases in the fair value as a reduction in contingent consideration expense. Changes in contingent consideration result from changes in the assumptions regarding probabilities of successful achievement of related milestones, the estimated timing in which the milestones are achieved and the discount rate used to estimate the fair value of the liability. Contingent consideration may change significantly as our development programs progress, revenue estimates evolve and additional data is obtained, impacting our assumptions. The assumptions used in estimating fair value require significant judgment. The use of different assumptions and judgments could result in a materially different estimate of fair value which may have a material impact on our results from operations and financial position.
Derivative financial instruments. We record derivative financial instruments on our Consolidated Balance Sheet at their fair value and recognize the changes in the fair value in our Consolidated Statement of Operations when they occur, the only exception being derivatives that qualify as hedges. For the derivative instrument to qualify as a hedge, we are required to meet strict hedge effectiveness and contemporaneous documentation requirements at the initiation of the hedge and assess the hedge effectiveness on an ongoing basis over the life of the hedge. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, our foreign currency forward contracts held to economically hedge inventory purchases did not meet the documentation requirements to be designated as hedges. Accordingly, we recognize all changes in the fair values of our derivatives instruments, net, in our Consolidated Statement of Operations. Refer to Note 19.
Property, plant and equipment. Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets and includes amortization expense for assets capitalized under capital leases. The estimated useful lives by asset class are as follows: software - 3 years, machinery, medical and other equipment - 5-8 years, furniture and fixtures - 5-12 years, leasehold improvements - the lesser of their useful life or the lease term, buildings and improvements - 10-40 years, and automobiles - 3-5 years. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. Depreciation expense was $29.4 million, $30.6 million and $33.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Assets held under capital leases are included within Property, plant and equipment, net in our Consolidated Balance Sheets and are amortized over the shorter of their useful lives or the expected term of their related leases.
Impairment of long-lived assets. Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, then an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset.
Income taxes. Income taxes are accounted for under the asset-and-liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and the respective tax bases and for operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in operations in the period that includes the enactment date. We periodically evaluate the realizability of our
net deferred tax assets. Our tax accruals are analyzed periodically and adjustments are made as events occur to warrant such
adjustment. Valuation allowances on certain U.S. deferred tax assets and non-U.S. deferred tax assets are established, because
realization of these tax benefits through future taxable income does not meet the more-likely-than-not threshold.
On December 22, 2017, the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) was enacted into law and the new legislation contains several key tax provisions, including a reduction of the corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018 and a one-time mandatory transition tax on accumulated foreign earnings, among others. We were required to recognize the effect of the tax law changes in the period of enactment, such as remeasuring our U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities, as well as reassessing the net realizability of our deferred tax assets and liabilities. In December 2017, the SEC staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (SAB 118), which allowed us to record provisional amounts during a measurement period not to extend beyond one year of the enactment date. As of December 22, 2018 we completed our analysis in accordance with SAB 118 and recorded immaterial adjustments.
Effective January 1, 2018, the Tax Act provides for a new global intangible low-taxed income (GILTI) provision. Under the GILTI provision, certain foreign subsidiary earnings in excess of an allowable return on the foreign subsidiary’s tangible assets are included in U.S. taxable income. The Company currently estimates GILTI will be immaterial for the year ended December 31, 2018, although interpretive guidance continues to be issued and future guidance may impact this analysis. The Company has not recorded any deferred taxes for future GILTI inclusions as any future inclusions are expected to be treated as a period expense and offset by net operating loss carryforwards in the U.S.
We operate in various countries and tax jurisdictions globally. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the tax rate differed from the U.S. federal statutory rate of 21% primarily due to the valuation allowance against certain U.S. and non-U.S. deferred tax assets, the relative mix in earnings and losses in the U.S. versus foreign tax jurisdictions, and the impact of certain discrete tax events and operating results in tax jurisdictions which do not result in a tax benefit.
Included in Other long-term liabilities is an accrual of $2.7 million related to uncertain tax positions involving income recognition. We recognize that local tax law is inherently complex and the local taxing authorities may not agree with certain tax positions taken. Consequently, it is reasonably possible that the ultimate resolution of tax matters in any jurisdiction may be significantly more or less than estimated. We evaluated the estimated tax exposure for a range of current likely outcomes to be from $0 to approximately $50.0 million and recorded our accrual to reflect our best expectation of ultimate resolution.
Revenue recognition. Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”). We recognize revenue when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services. The amount of revenue that is recorded reflects the consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services. We apply the following five-step model in order to determine this amount: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) we satisfy a performance obligation.
We only apply the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that we will collect the consideration we are entitled to in exchange for the goods or services we transfer to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of Topic 606, we review the contract to determine which performance obligations we must deliver and which of these performance obligations are distinct. We recognize as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when the performance obligation is satisfied or as it is satisfied. For a complete discussion of accounting for Revenues from services, Revenues from products and Revenue from transfer of intellectual property and other, refer to Note 14.
Concentration of credit risk and allowance for doubtful accounts. Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of accounts receivable. Substantially all of our accounts receivable are with either companies in the health care industry or patients. However, credit risk is limited due to the number of our clients as well as their dispersion across many different geographic regions.
While we have receivables due from federal and state governmental agencies, we do not believe that such receivables represent a credit risk since the related healthcare programs are funded by federal and state governments, and payment is primarily dependent upon submitting appropriate documentation. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, receivable balances (net of contractual adjustments) from Medicare and Medicaid in total were 17% and 16%, respectively, of our consolidated Accounts receivable, net.
The portion of our accounts receivable due from individual patients comprises the largest portion of credit risk. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, receivables due from patients represent approximately 3.1% and 3.2%, respectively, of our consolidated Accounts receivable, net.
We assess the collectability of accounts receivable balances by considering factors such as historical collection experience, customer credit worthiness, the age of accounts receivable balances, regulatory changes and current economic conditions and trends that may affect a customer’s ability to pay. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Our reported
net loss is directly affected by our estimate of the collectability of accounts receivable. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $1.8 million and $1.4 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The provision for bad debts for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was $0.7 million and $0.9 million, respectively.
Equity-based compensation. We measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. That cost is recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Operations over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award. We record excess tax benefits, realized from the exercise of stock options, as cash flows from operations. Equity-based compensation arrangements to non-employees are recorded at their fair value on the measurement date. The measurement of equity-based compensation to non-employees is subject to periodic adjustment as the underlying equity instruments vest. During the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, we recorded $21.8 million, $28.3 million and $42.7 million, respectively, of equity-based compensation expense.
Research and development expenses. Research and development expenses include external and internal expenses. External expenses include clinical and non-clinical activities performed by contract research organizations, lab services, purchases of drug and diagnostic product materials and manufacturing development costs. Research and development employee-related expenses include salaries, benefits and equity-based compensation expense. Other internal research and development expenses are incurred to support overall research and development activities and include expenses related to general overhead and facilities. We expense these costs in the period in which they are incurred. We estimate our liabilities for research and development expenses in order to match the recognition of expenses to the period in which the actual services are received. As such, accrued liabilities related to third party research and development activities are recognized based upon our estimate of services received and degree of completion of the services in accordance with the specific third party contract.
Research and development expense includes costs for in-process research and development projects acquired in asset acquisitions which have not reached technological feasibility and which have no alternative future use. For in-process research and development projects acquired in business combinations, the in-process research and development project is capitalized and evaluated for impairment until the development process has been completed. Once the development process has been completed the asset will be amortized over its remaining useful life.
Segment reporting. Our chief operating decision-maker (“CODM”) is Phillip Frost, M.D., our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Our CODM reviews our operating results and operating plans and makes resource allocation decisions on a Company-wide or aggregate basis. We manage our operations in two reportable segments, pharmaceutical and diagnostics. The pharmaceutical segment consists of our pharmaceutical operations we acquired in Chile, Mexico, Ireland, Israel and Spain, Rayaldee product sales and our pharmaceutical research and development. The diagnostics segment primarily consists of clinical laboratory operations we acquired through the acquisition of BioReference and point-of-care operations. There are no significant inter-segment sales. We evaluate the performance of each segment based on operating profit or loss. There is no inter-segment allocation of interest expense and income taxes. Refer to Note 17.
Shipping and handling costs. We do not charge customers for shipping and handling costs. Shipping and handling costs are classified as Cost of revenues in the Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Foreign currency translation. The financial statements of certain of our foreign operations are measured using the local currency as the functional currency. The local currency assets and liabilities are generally translated at the rate of exchange to the U.S. dollar on the balance sheet date and the local currency revenues and expenses are translated at average rates of exchange to the U.S. dollar during the reporting periods. Foreign currency transaction gains (losses) have been reflected as a component of Other income (expense), net within the Consolidated Statement of Operations and foreign currency translation gains (losses) have been included as a component of the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Loss. During the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, we recorded $1.9 million, $1.4 million and $0.8 million, respectively of transaction gains (losses).
Variable interest entities. The consolidation of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is required when an enterprise has a controlling financial interest. A controlling financial interest in a VIE will have both of the following characteristics: (a) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and (b) the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. Refer to Note 4.
Investments. We have made strategic investments in development stage and emerging companies. We record these investments as equity method investments or as equity securities based on our percentage of ownership and whether we have significant influence over the operations of the investees. For investments classified under the equity method of accounting, we record our proportionate share of their losses in Losses from investments in investees in our Consolidated Statement of Operations. Refer to Note 4. For investments classified as equity securities, we record changes in their fair value as Other
income (expense) in our Consolidated Statement of Operations based on their closing price per share at the end of each reporting period, unless the equity security does not have a readily determinable fair value. Refer to Note 4.
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements.
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” ASU 2014-09, as amended and codified into Topic 606, clarifies the principles for recognizing revenue and develops a common revenue standard for GAAP that removes inconsistencies and weaknesses in revenue requirements, provides a more robust framework for addressing revenue issues, improves comparability of revenue recognition practices across entities, industries, jurisdictions, and capital markets, provides more useful information to users of financial statements through improved disclosure requirements and simplifies the preparation of financial statements by reducing the number of requirements to which an entity must refer. As required, we adopted Topic 606 on January 1, 2018 using the full retrospective approach, and have elected to use the following practical expedients that are permitted under the rules of the adoption, which have been applied consistently to all contracts within all reporting periods presented:
As a result of adopting Topic 606 on January 1, 2018 using the full retrospective approach, we revised our comparative financial statements for the prior years as if Topic 606 had been effective for those periods. As a result, the following financial statement line items for 2017 and 2016 were affected:
Consolidated Statement of Operations
Consolidated Balance Sheet
Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows
The most significant change above relates to amounts in our clinical laboratory operations that were historically classified as provision for bad debts, primarily related to patient responsibility, which are now considered an element of variable consideration as an implicit price concession in determining revenues under Topic 606. Accordingly, we report uncollectible balances associated with individual patients as a reduction of the transaction price and therefore as a reduction in Revenue from services when historically these amounts were classified as provision for bad debts within Selling, general and administrative expenses.
In addition, under Topic 606, the upfront consideration received for a license and contract services combined performance obligation is recognized as revenue to the extent of costs incurred based on the length of the expected performance period and the subjectivity in estimating progress towards satisfaction of the performance obligation. Under previous accounting, we recognized revenue over the expected performance period. The adoption of Topic 606 resulted in a cumulative revenue reduction of $41.8 million and an increase of our accumulated deficit balance as of December 31, 2017; with a corresponding increase in our contract liabilities. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, Revenue from the transfer of intellectual property and other was increased (decreased) by $3.4 million and $(23.3) million, respectively, for the change in accounting. For a further discussion of the adoption of Topic 606, refer to Note 14.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, “Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10),” which addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. The ASU requires equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. As a result of the required adoption of ASU 2016-01 on January 1, 2018, we recorded a cumulative-effect adjustment to reclassify our net unrealized gains on our equity securities of $4.9 million as of January 1, 2018 from Accumulated other comprehensive loss to Accumulated deficit in our Consolidated Balance Sheet. Changes in the fair value of certain of our equity securities subsequent to the adoption of ASU 2016-01 on January 1, 2018 will be predominately recognized in net income.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230),” which addresses the classification of eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. The required adoption of ASU 2016-15 in the first quarter of 2018 did not have a significant impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, “Business Combinations (Topic 805),” which clarifies the definition of a business to assist entities in evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The required adoption of ASU 2017-01 in the first quarter of 2018 did not have a significant impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, “Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350),” which simplifies how an entity is required to test for goodwill impairment. Under ASU 2017-04, an impairment loss will reflect the amount by which the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. We early adopted the provisions of ASU 2017-04 prospectively in the fourth quarter of 2018. For a further discussion of the adoption of ASU 2017-04, refer to Goodwill and intangible assets earlier in this Note 2.
Pending accounting pronouncements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842),” which will require organizations that lease assets with lease terms of more than 12 months to recognize assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by those leases on their balance sheets. ASU 2016-02, as amended, requires new qualitative and quantitative disclosures to help investors and other financial statement users better understand the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. ASU 2016-02 will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We have begun a process to identify a complete population of our leases. Such process includes reviewing various contracts to identify whether such arrangements convey the right to control the use of an identified asset. The determination of the impact of this new guidance is ongoing and, as such, we are not able to reasonably estimate the effect the adoption of this new standard will have on our financial statements. Based on our preliminary assessment of this ASU, we believe the new standard will have a significant impact on our Consolidated Balance Sheet, which has not yet been quantified. In July 2018, the FASB issued an ASU to provide an additional transition method to adopt the guidance by allowing entities to initially apply the new leases standard at the adoption date and recognize a cumulative effect to the opening balance of retained earnings. We are currently evaluating the choice of transition options.In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, “Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718),” which expands the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. ASU 2018-07 will be effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this new guidance on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef