Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

v3.20.2
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIESBasis of presentation. The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”) and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of only normal recurring adjustments or adjustments otherwise disclosed herein) considered necessary to present fairly the Company’s results of operations, financial position and cash flows have been made. The results of operations and cash flows for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations and cash flows that may be reported for the remainder of 2020 or any other future periods. The unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Principles of consolidation. The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of OPKO Health, Inc. and our wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ significantly from these estimates.
Cash and cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents include short-term, interest-bearing instruments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of purchase. We also consider all highly liquid investments with original maturities at the date of purchase of 90 days or less as cash equivalents. These investments include money markets, bank deposits, certificates of deposit and U.S. treasury securities.
Inventories. Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined by the first-in, first-out method. We consider such factors as the amount of inventory on hand, estimated time required to sell such inventories, remaining shelf-life, and current market conditions to determine whether inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Inventories at our diagnostics segment consist primarily of purchased laboratory supplies, which is used in our testing laboratories. Inventory obsolescence expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 was $3.4 million and $1.4 million, respectively.
Pre-launch inventories. We may accumulate commercial quantities of certain product candidates prior to the date we anticipate that such products will receive final U.S. FDA approval. The accumulation of such pre-launch inventories involves the risk that such products may not be approved for marketing by the FDA on a timely basis, or ever. This risk notwithstanding, we may accumulate pre-launch inventories of certain products when such action is appropriate in relation to the commercial value of the product launch opportunity. In accordance with our policy, this pre-launch inventory is expensed.  
Goodwill and intangible assets. Goodwill represents the difference between the purchase price and the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired accounted for by the acquisition method of accounting. Refer to Note 5. Goodwill, in-process research and development (“IPR&D”) and other intangible assets acquired in business combinations, licensing and other transactions was $1.8 billion at both at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
Assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations, licensing and other transactions are generally recognized at the date of acquisition at their respective fair values. Any excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values of the net assets acquired is recognized as goodwill. At acquisition, we generally determine the fair value of intangible assets, including IPR&D, using the “income method.”
Subsequent to their acquisition, goodwill and indefinite lived intangible assets are tested at least annually as of October 1 for impairment, or when events or changes in circumstances indicate it is more likely than not that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable.
Goodwill was $675.8 million and $671.9 million respectively, at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019. Estimating the fair value of a reporting unit for goodwill impairment is highly sensitive to changes in projections and assumptions and changes in assumptions could potentially lead to impairment. We perform sensitivity analyses around our assumptions in order to assess the reasonableness of the assumptions and the results of our testing. Ultimately, potential changes in these assumptions may impact the estimated fair value of a reporting unit and result in an impairment if the fair value of such reporting unit is less than its carrying value.
Net intangible assets other than goodwill was $1.1 billion, including IPR&D of $590.2 million, at both September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019. Intangible assets are highly vulnerable to impairment charges, particularly newly acquired assets for recently launched products and IPR&D. Considering the high risk nature of research and development and the industry’s success rate of bringing developmental compounds to market, IPR&D impairment charges may occur in future periods. Estimating the fair value of IPR&D for potential impairment is highly sensitive to changes in projections and assumptions and changes in assumptions could potentially lead to impairment.
Upon obtaining regulatory approval, IPR&D assets are then accounted for as a finite-lived intangible asset and amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life. If the project is abandoned, the IPR&D asset is charged to expense. Finite lived intangible assets are tested for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate it is more likely than not that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. The testing includes a comparison of the carrying amount of the asset to its estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset
exceeds its estimated undiscounted future cash flows, then an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset.
We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and otherwise consistent with assumptions that marketplace participants would use in their estimates of fair value.  However, if future results are not consistent with our estimates and assumptions, including as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic, then we may be exposed to an impairment charge, which could be material. 
We amortize intangible assets with definite lives on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, ranging from 3 to 20 years. We use the straight-line method of amortization as there is no reliably determinable pattern in which the economic benefits of our intangible assets are consumed or otherwise used up. Amortization expense was $43.8 million and $49.4 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Fair value measurements. The carrying amounts of our cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and short-term debt approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments. Investments that are considered equity securities as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019 are predominately carried at fair value. Our debt under the credit agreement with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. approximates fair value due to the variable rate of interest applicable to such debt.
In evaluating the fair value information, considerable judgment is required to interpret the market data used to develop the estimates. The use of different market assumptions and/or different valuation techniques may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts. Accordingly, the estimates of fair value presented herein may not be indicative of the amounts that could be realized in a current market exchange. Refer to Note 9.
Contingent consideration. Each period we revalue the contingent consideration obligations associated with certain prior acquisitions to their fair value and record increases in the fair value as contingent consideration expense and decreases in the fair value as a reduction in contingent consideration expense. Changes in contingent consideration result from changes in the assumptions regarding probabilities of successful achievement of related milestones, the estimated timing in which the milestones are achieved and the discount rate used to estimate the fair value of the liability. Contingent consideration may change significantly as our development programs progress, revenue estimates evolve and additional data is obtained, impacting our assumptions. The assumptions used in estimating fair value require significant judgment. The use of different assumptions and judgments could result in a materially different estimate of fair value which may have a material impact on our results from operations and financial position.
Derivative financial instruments. We record derivative financial instruments on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at their fair value and recognize the changes in the fair value in our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations when they occur, the only exception being derivatives that qualify as hedges. For the derivative instrument to qualify as a hedge, we are required to meet strict hedge effectiveness and contemporaneous documentation requirements at the initiation of the hedge and assess the hedge effectiveness on an ongoing basis over the life of the hedge. At September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, our foreign currency forward contracts held to economically hedge inventory purchases did not meet the documentation requirements to be designated as hedges. Accordingly, we recognize all changes in the fair values of our derivatives instruments, net, in our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations. Refer to Note 10.
Property, plant and equipment. Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost or fair value if acquired in a business combination. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets and includes amortization expense for assets capitalized under finance leases. The estimated useful lives by asset class are as follows: software - 3 years, machinery, medical and other equipment - 5-8 years, furniture and fixtures - 5-12 years, leasehold improvements - the lesser of their useful life or the lease term, buildings and improvements - 10-40 years, and automobiles - 3-5 years. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. Depreciation expense was $21.5 million and $21.9 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Assets held under finance leases are included within Property, plant and equipment, net in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet and are amortized over the shorter of their useful lives or the expected term of their related leases.
Impairment of long-lived assets. Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, then an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset.
Income taxes. Income taxes are accounted for under the asset-and-liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and the respective tax bases and for operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in operations in the period that includes the enactment date. We periodically evaluate the realizability of our
net deferred tax assets. Our tax accruals are analyzed periodically and adjustments are made as events occur to warrant such
adjustment. Valuation allowances on certain U.S. deferred tax assets and non-U.S. deferred tax assets are established, because realization of these tax benefits through future taxable income does not meet the more-likely-than-not threshold.
We operate in various countries and tax jurisdictions globally.  For interim reporting purposes, we record income taxes based on the expected effective income tax rate, taking into consideration year to date and global forecasted tax results.  For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, the tax rate differed from the U.S. federal statutory rate of 21% primarily due to the valuation allowance against certain U.S. and non-U.S. deferred tax assets, the relative mix in earnings and losses in the U.S. versus foreign tax jurisdictions, and the impact of certain discrete tax events and operating results in tax jurisdictions which do not result in a tax benefit.
Revenue recognition. We recognize revenue when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”). The amount of revenue that is recorded reflects the consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services. We apply the following five-step model in order to determine this amount: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) we satisfy a performance obligation.
We apply the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that we will collect the consideration we are entitled to in exchange for the goods or services we transfer to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of Topic 606, we review the contract to determine which performance obligations we must deliver and which of these performance obligations are distinct. We recognize as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when the performance obligation is satisfied or as it is satisfied. For a complete discussion of accounting for Revenues from services, Revenues from products and Revenue from transfer of intellectual property and other, refer to Note 13.
Concentration of credit risk and allowance for credit losses. Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of accounts receivable. Substantially all of our accounts receivable are with either companies in the healthcare industry or patients. However, credit risk is limited due to the number of our clients as well as their dispersion across many different geographic regions.
While we have receivables due from federal and state governmental agencies, we do not believe that such receivables represent a credit risk because the related healthcare programs are funded by federal and state governments, and payment is primarily dependent upon submitting appropriate documentation. At September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, receivable balances (net of explicit and implicit price concessions) from Medicare and Medicaid were 7% and 6%, respectively, of our consolidated Accounts receivable, net. At September 30, 2020, receivable balances (net of explicit and implicit price concessions) due directly from states, cities and other municipalities, specifically related to our real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay to detect COVID-19, were 8.1% of our consolidated accounts receivable, net.
The portion of our accounts receivable due from individual patients comprises the largest portion of credit risk. At September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, receivables due from patients represented approximately 1.0% and 2.5%, respectively, of our consolidated Accounts receivable, net.
We assess the collectability of accounts receivable balances by considering factors such as historical collection experience, customer credit worthiness, the age of accounts receivable balances, regulatory changes and current economic conditions and trends that may affect a customer’s ability to pay. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The allowance for credit losses was $2.0 million and $1.9 million at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. The credit loss expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 was $0.3 million and $0.3 million, respectively.
Equity-based compensation. We measure the cost of services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. That cost is recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award. We record excess tax benefits realized from the exercise of stock options as cash flows from operations. For the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, we recorded $6.8 million and $11.0 million, respectively, of equity-based compensation expense.
Research and development expenses. Research and development expenses include external and internal expenses. External expenses include clinical and non-clinical activities performed by contract research organizations, lab services, purchases of drug and diagnostic product materials and manufacturing development costs. Research and development employee-related expenses include salaries, benefits and equity-based compensation expense. Other internal research and development expenses are incurred to support overall research and development activities and include expenses related to general overhead and facilities. We expense these costs in the period in which they are incurred. We estimate our liabilities for research and development expenses in order to match the recognition of expenses to the period in which the actual services are received. As such, accrued liabilities related to third party research and development activities are recognized based upon our estimate of services received and degree of completion of the services in accordance with the specific third party contract.
Research and development expense includes costs for in-process research and development projects acquired in asset acquisitions which have not reached technological feasibility and which have no alternative future use. For in-process research and development projects acquired in business combinations, the in-process research and development project is capitalized and evaluated for impairment until the development process has been completed. Once the development process has been completed the asset will be amortized over its remaining estimated useful life.
Segment reporting. Our chief operating decision-maker (“CODM”) is Phillip Frost, M.D., our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Our CODM reviews our operating results and operating plans and makes resource allocation decisions on a Company-wide or aggregate basis. We manage our operations in two reportable segments, pharmaceutical and diagnostics. The pharmaceutical segment consists of our pharmaceutical operations in Chile, Mexico, Ireland, Israel and Spain, Rayaldee product sales and our pharmaceutical research and development. The diagnostics segment primarily consists of clinical laboratory operations through BioReference and point-of-care operations. There are no significant inter-segment sales. We evaluate the performance of each segment based on operating profit or loss. There is no inter-segment allocation of interest expense or income taxes. Refer to Note 15.
Shipping and handling costs. We do not charge customers for shipping and handling costs. Shipping and handling costs are classified as Cost of revenues in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Foreign currency translation. The financial statements of certain of our foreign operations are measured using the local currency as the functional currency. The local currency assets and liabilities are generally translated at the rate of exchange to the U.S. dollar on the balance sheet date and the local currency revenues and expenses are translated at average rates of exchange to the U.S. dollar during the reporting periods. Foreign currency transaction gains (losses) have been reflected as a component of Other income (expense), net within the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations and foreign currency translation gains (losses) have been included as a component of the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income (Loss).
Variable interest entities. The consolidation of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is required when an enterprise has a controlling financial interest. A controlling financial interest in a VIE will have both of the following characteristics: (a) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and (b) the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. Refer to Note 6.
Investments. We have made strategic investments in development stage and emerging companies. We record these investments as equity method investments or as equity securities based on our percentage of ownership and whether we have significant influence over the operations of the investees. For investments classified under the equity method of accounting, we record our proportionate share of their losses in Losses from investments in investees in our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations. Refer to Note 6. For investments classified as equity securities, we record changes in their fair value as Other income (expense) in our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations based on their closing price per share at the end of each reporting period, unless the equity security does not have a readily determinable fair value. Refer to Note 6.
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” which amends the impairment model by requiring entities to use a forward-looking approach based on expected losses rather than incurred losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables. This may result in the earlier recognition of allowances for losses. The ASU is effective for public entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of ASU 2016-13 on January 1, 2020, did not have a significant impact on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Pending accounting pronouncements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, “Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity's Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40).” ASU 2020-06 will simplify the accounting for convertible instruments by reducing the number of accounting models for convertible debt instruments and convertible preferred stock. The ASU is effective for public entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this new guidance on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.