Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

v3.8.0.1
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of presentation
Basis of presentation. The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. and with the instructions to Form 10-K and of Regulation S-X.
Principles of consolidation
Principles of consolidation. The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of OPKO Health, Inc. and of our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates
Use of estimates. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ significantly from these estimates.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents include short-term, interest-bearing instruments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of purchase. We also consider all highly liquid investments with original maturities at the date of purchase of 90 days or less as cash equivalents. These investments include money markets, bank deposits, certificates of deposit and U.S. treasury securities.
Inventories
Inventories. Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined by the first-in, first-out method. We consider such factors as the amount of inventory on hand, estimated time required to sell such inventories, remaining shelf-life, and current market conditions to determine whether inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Inventories at our diagnostics segment consist primarily of purchased laboratory supplies, which is used in our testing laboratories. Inventory obsolescence for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 was $5.4 million and $0.0 million, respectively.
Pre-launch inventories. We may accumulate commercial quantities of certain product candidates prior to the date we anticipate that such products will receive final U.S. FDA approval.  The accumulation of such pre-launch inventories involves the risk that such products may not be approved for marketing by the FDA on a timely basis, or ever.  This risk notwithstanding, we may accumulate pre-launch inventories of certain products when such action is appropriate in relation to the commercial value of the product launch opportunity.  In accordance with our policy, this pre-launch inventory is expensed.  
Goodwill and intangible assets
Goodwill and intangible assets. Goodwill represents the difference between the purchase price and the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired accounted for by the acquisition method of accounting and arose from our acquisitions. Refer to Note 5. Goodwill, in-process research and development (“IPR&D”) and other intangible assets acquired in business combinations, licensing and other transactions at December 31, 2017 and 2016, were $2.0 billion and $2.1 billion, respectively.
Assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations, licensing and other transactions are generally recognized at the date of acquisition at their respective fair values. We determined the fair value of intangible assets, including IPR&D, using the “income method.”
Goodwill is tested at least annually for impairment, or when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable, by assessing qualitative factors or performing a quantitative analysis in determining whether it is more likely than not that its fair value exceeds the carrying value.
Intangible assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable, although IPR&D is required to be tested at least annually until the project is completed or abandoned. Upon obtaining regulatory approval, the IPR&D asset is then accounted for as a finite-lived intangible asset and amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life. If the project is abandoned, the IPR&D asset is charged to expense.
We recorded an impairment charge of $13.2 million in Amortization of intangible assets in our Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2017 to write our intangible asset for VARUBI™ down to its estimated fair value. No intangible asset impairment was recorded for the year ended December 31, 2016.
We reclassified $187.6 million of IPR&D related to Rayaldee from In-process research and development to Intangible assets, net in our Consolidated Balance Sheets upon the FDA’s approval of Rayaldee in June 2016. The assets are being amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful life of approximately 12 years.
We amortize intangible assets with definite lives on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, ranging from 3 to 20 years. We use the straight-line method of amortization as there is no reliably determinable pattern in which the economic benefits of our intangible assets are consumed or otherwise used up.
Fair value measurements
Fair value measurements. The carrying amounts of our cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and short-term debt approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments. Investments that are considered available for sale as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 are carried at fair value. Our debt under the credit agreement with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. approximates fair value due to the variable rate of interest.
In evaluating the fair value information, considerable judgment is required to interpret the market data used to develop the estimates. The use of different market assumptions and/or different valuation techniques may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts. Accordingly, the estimates of fair value presented herein may not be indicative of the amounts that could be realized in a current market exchange.
Contingent consideration
Contingent consideration. Each period we revalue the contingent consideration obligations associated with certain prior acquisitions to their fair value and record increases in the fair value as contingent consideration expense and decreases in the fair value as a reduction in contingent consideration expense. Changes in contingent consideration result from changes in the assumptions regarding probabilities of successful achievement of related milestones, the estimated timing in which the milestones are achieved and the discount rate used to estimate the fair value of the liability. Contingent consideration may change significantly as our development programs progress, revenue estimates evolve and additional data is obtained, impacting our assumptions. The assumptions used in estimating fair value require significant judgment. The use of different assumptions and judgments could result in a materially different estimate of fair value which may have a material impact on our results from operations and financial position.
Derivative financial instruments
Derivative financial instruments. We record derivative financial instruments on our Consolidated Balance Sheet at their fair value and recognize the changes in the fair value in our Consolidated Statement of Operations when they occur, the only exception being derivatives that qualify as hedges. For the derivative instrument to qualify as a hedge, we are required to meet strict hedge effectiveness and contemporaneous documentation requirements at the initiation of the hedge and assess the hedge effectiveness on an ongoing basis over the life of the hedge. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, our foreign currency forward contracts held to economically hedge inventory purchases did not meet the documentation requirements to be designated as hedges. Accordingly, we recognize all changes in the fair values of our derivatives instruments, net, in our Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Property, plant, equipment
Property, plant and equipment. Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets and includes amortization expense for assets capitalized under capital leases. The estimated useful lives by asset class are as follows: software - 3 years, machinery, medical and other equipment - 5-8 years, furniture and fixtures - 5-12 years, leasehold improvements - the lesser of their useful life or the lease term, buildings and improvements - 10-40 years, automobiles - 3-5 years. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. Depreciation expense was $30.6 million, $33.3 million and $14.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Assets held under capital leases are included within Property, plant and equipment, net in our Consolidated Balance Sheets and are amortized over the shorter of their useful lives or the expected term of their related leases.
Impairment of long-lived assets
Impairment of long-lived assets. Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, then an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset.
Income taxes
Income taxes. Income taxes are accounted for under the asset-and-liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and the respective tax bases and for operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in operations in the period that includes the enactment date.
On December 22, 2017, the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) was enacted into law and the new legislation contains several key tax provisions, including a reduction of the corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018, and a one-time mandatory transition tax on accumulated foreign earnings, among others. The Tax Act required us to remeasure our U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities and recognize the effect in the period of enactment, which resulted in an income tax charge of $31.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, with an equal offset to valuation allowance. We are required to recognize the effect of the tax law changes in the period of enactment, such as remeasuring our U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities, as well as reassessing the net realizability of our deferred tax assets and liabilities. In December 2017, the SEC staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (SAB 118), which allows us to record provisional amounts during a measurement period not to extend beyond one year of the enactment date. Since the Tax Act was passed late in the fourth quarter of 2017, and ongoing guidance and accounting interpretation are expected over the next 12 months, our accounting of deferred tax re-measurements, the transition tax, and other items are provisional and may materially change due to the forthcoming guidance and our ongoing analysis of final year-end data and tax positions. We expect to complete our analysis within the measurement period in accordance with SAB 118.
We anticipate future impacts at a U.S. state and local tax level related to the Tax Act; however, statutory and interpretive guidance is not available from applicable state and local tax authorities to reasonably estimate the impact. Consequently, for those jurisdictions, we have not recorded provisional amounts and have continued to apply ASC 740 based on the provisions of the tax laws that were in effect immediately prior to Tax Act enactment.
We operate in various countries and tax jurisdictions globally.  For the year ended December 31, 2017, the tax rate differed from the U.S. federal statutory rate of 35% primarily due to the relative mix in earnings and losses in the U.S. versus foreign tax jurisdictions, the establishment of a valuation allowance in the U.S. and operating results in tax jurisdictions which do not result in a tax benefit.
Included in Other long-term liabilities is an accrual of $2.5 million related to uncertain tax positions involving income recognition. We recognize that local tax law is inherently complex and the local taxing authorities may not agree with certain tax positions taken. Consequently, it is reasonably possible that the ultimate resolution of tax matters in any jurisdiction may be significantly more or less than estimated. We evaluated the estimated tax exposure for a range of current likely outcomes to be from $0 to approximately $50.0 million and recorded our accrual to reflect our best expectation of ultimate resolution.
Revenue recognition
Revenue recognition. Revenue for laboratory services is recognized at the time test results are reported, which approximates when services are provided. Services are provided to patients covered by various third party payor programs including various managed care organizations, as well as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. For the year ended December 31, 2017, approximately 31% of our revenues from services were derived directly from the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Billings for services under third-party payer programs are included in revenue net of allowances for contractual discounts and allowances for differences between the amounts billed and estimated program payment amounts. 
The complexities and ambiguities of billing, reimbursement regulations and claims processing, as well as issues unique to Medicare and Medicaid programs, require us to estimate the potential for retroactive adjustments in the recognition of revenue in the period the related services are rendered. Adjustments to the estimated collection amounts are recorded upon settlement as an adjustment to revenue.
We recognize revenue from product sales when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, collectability is reasonably assured, and the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, which is generally when goods are shipped and title and risk of loss transfer to our customers. Our estimates for sales returns and allowances are based upon the historical patterns of product returns and allowances taken, matched against the sales from which they originated, and our evaluation of specific factors that may increase or decrease the risk of product returns. Product revenues are recorded net of estimated rebates, chargebacks, discounts, co-pay assistance and other deductions (collectively, “Sales Deductions”) as well as estimated product returns. Allowances are recorded as a reduction of revenue at the time product revenues are recognized.
We launched Rayaldee in the U.S. through our dedicated renal sales force in November 2016. Rayaldee is distributed in the U.S. principally through the retail pharmacy channel, which initiates with the largest wholesalers in the U.S. (collectively, “Rayaldee Customers”). In addition to distribution agreements with Rayaldee Customers, we have entered into arrangements with many healthcare providers and payers that provide for government-mandated and/or privately-negotiated rebates, chargebacks and discounts with respect to the purchase of Rayaldee.
As of December 31, 2017, allowances for Sales Deductions and product returns related to sales of Rayaldee are known or estimable utilizing historical information and market research projections. As a result, we recognize revenue for shipments of Rayaldee at the time of delivery to Rayaldee Customers. For the year ended December 31, 2017, we recognized $9.1 million in net product revenue from sales of Rayaldee, including amounts previously deferred. No revenue was recognized from sales of Rayaldee for the year ended December 31, 2016 as we lacked the experiential data which would allow us to estimate Sales Deductions and product returns. The related deferred revenue balance as of December 31, 2016 was $1.6 million.
The following table presents an analysis of product sales allowances and accruals for the year ended December 31, 2017:
(In thousands)
 
Chargebacks, discounts, rebates and fees
 
Governmental
 
Returns
 
Total
Balance at December 31, 2016
 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

  Provision related to current period sales
 
1,591

 
1,332

 
490

 
3,413

  Credits or payments made
 
(1,358
)
 
(984
)
 
(53
)
 
(2,395
)
Balance at December 31, 2017
 
$
233

 
$
348

 
$
437

 
$
1,018

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total gross Rayaldee sales
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
12,482

Provision for Rayaldee sales allowances and accruals as a percentage of gross Rayaldee sales
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27
%

Revenue from transfer of intellectual property includes revenue related to the sale, license or transfer of intellectual property such as upfront license payments, license fees, milestone and royalty payments received through our license, and collaboration and commercialization agreements. We analyze our multiple-element arrangements to determine whether the elements can be separated and accounted for individually as separate units of accounting.
Non-refundable license fees for the out-license of our technology are recognized depending on the provisions of each agreement. We recognize non-refundable upfront license payments as revenue upon receipt if the license has standalone value and qualifies for treatment as a separate unit of accounting under multiple-element arrangement guidance. License fees with ongoing involvement or performance obligations that do not have standalone value are recorded as deferred revenue, included in Accrued expenses or Other long-term liabilities, when received and generally are recognized ratably over the period of such performance obligations only after both the license period has commenced and we have delivered the technology.
The assessment of our obligations and related performance periods requires significant management judgment. If an agreement contains research and development obligations, the relevant time period for the research and development phase is based on management estimates and could vary depending on the outcome of clinical trials and the regulatory approval process. Such changes could materially impact the revenue recognized, and as a result, management reviews the estimates related to the relevant time period of research and development on a periodic basis. For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 we recorded $70.7 million, $126.1 million and $81.9 million of revenue from the transfer of intellectual property, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2017, revenue from the transfer of intellectual property included $57.8 million related to the Pfizer Transaction and $10.0 million related to a milestone payment that TESARO, Inc. (“TESARO”) paid us under our license agreement with them. Refer to Note 14. For the year ended December 31, 2016, revenue from the transfer of intellectual property included $50.0 million related to the VFMCRP Agreement and $70.6 million related to the Pfizer Transaction. For the year ended December 31, 2015, revenue from the transfer of intellectual property included $15.0 million related to a milestone payment that TESARO paid us under our license agreement with them and $65.5 million related to the Pfizer Transaction.
Revenue from milestone payments related to arrangements under which we have continuing performance obligations are recognized as Revenue from transfer of intellectual property upon achievement of the milestone only if all of the following conditions are met: the milestone payments are non-refundable; there was substantive uncertainty at the date of entering into the arrangement that the milestone would be achieved; the milestone payment is commensurate with either our performance to achieve the milestone or the enhancement of the value of the delivered item by us; the milestone relates solely to past performance; and the amount of the milestone payment is reasonable in relation to the effort expended or the risk associated with the achievement of the milestone. If any of these conditions are not met, the milestone payments are not considered to be substantive and are, therefore, deferred and recognized as Revenue from transfer of intellectual property over the term of the arrangement as we complete our performance obligations.
Concentrations of credit risk and allowance for doubtful accounts
Concentration of credit risk and allowance for doubtful accounts. Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of accounts receivable. Substantially all of our accounts receivable are with either companies in the health care industry or patients. However, credit risk is limited due to the number of our clients as well as their dispersion across many different geographic regions.
While we have receivables due from federal and state governmental agencies, we do not believe that such receivables represent a credit risk since the related healthcare programs are funded by federal and state governments, and payment is primarily dependent upon submitting appropriate documentation. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, receivable balances (net of contractual adjustments) from Medicare and Medicaid in total were 16% and 23%, respectively, of our consolidated Accounts receivable, net.
The portion of our accounts receivable due from individual patients comprises the largest portion of credit risk. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, receivables due from patients represent approximately 3.2% and 4.1%, respectively, of our consolidated Accounts receivable, net.
We assess the collectability of accounts receivable balances by considering factors such as historical collection experience, customer credit worthiness, the age of accounts receivable balances, regulatory changes and current economic conditions and trends that may affect a customer’s ability to pay. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Our reported net income (loss) is directly affected by our estimate of the collectability of accounts receivable.
Equity-based compensation
Equity-based compensation. We measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. That cost is recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Operations over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award. We record excess tax benefits, realized from the exercise of stock options, as cash flows from operations. Equity-based compensation arrangements to non-employees are recorded at their fair value on the measurement date. The measurement of equity-based compensation to non-employees is subject to periodic adjustment as the underlying equity instruments vest.
Research and development expenses
Research and development expenses. Research and development expenses include external and internal expenses, partially offset by third-party grants and fundings arising from collaboration agreements. External expenses include clinical and non-clinical activities performed by contract research organizations, lab services, purchases of drug and diagnostic product materials and manufacturing development costs. Research and development employee-related expenses include salaries, benefits and equity-based compensation expense. Other internal research and development expenses are incurred to support overall research and development activities and include expenses related to general overhead and facilities. We expense these costs in the period in which they are incurred. We estimate our liabilities for research and development expenses in order to match the recognition of expenses to the period in which the actual services are received. As such, accrued liabilities related to third party research and development activities are recognized based upon our estimate of services received and degree of completion of the services in accordance with the specific third party contract.
We record expense for in-process research and development projects acquired in asset acquisitions which have not reached technological feasibility and which have no alternative future use. For in-process research and development projects acquired in business combinations, the in-process research and development project is capitalized and evaluated for impairment until the development process has been completed. Once the development process has been completed the asset will be amortized over its remaining useful life.
Segment reporting
Segment reporting. Our chief operating decision-maker (“CODM”) is Phillip Frost, M.D., our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Our CODM reviews our operating results and operating plans and makes resource allocation decisions on a Company-wide or aggregate basis. We manage our operations in two reportable segments, pharmaceutical and diagnostics. The pharmaceutical segment consists of our pharmaceutical operations we acquired in Chile, Mexico, Ireland, Israel and Spain and our pharmaceutical research and development. The diagnostics segment primarily consists of clinical laboratory operations we acquired through the acquisition of BioReference and point-of-care operations. There are no significant inter-segment sales. We evaluate the performance of each segment based on operating profit or loss. There is no inter-segment allocation of interest expense and income taxes.
Shipping and handling costs
Shipping and handling costs. We do not charge customers for shipping and handling costs. Shipping and handling costs are classified as Cost of revenues in the Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Foreign currency translations
Foreign currency translation. The financial statements of certain of our foreign operations are measured using the local currency as the functional currency. The local currency assets and liabilities are generally translated at the rate of exchange to the United States (“U.S.”) dollar on the balance sheet date and the local currency revenues and expenses are translated at average rates of exchange to the U.S. dollar during the reporting periods. Foreign currency transaction gains (losses) have been reflected as a component of Other income (expense), net within the Consolidated Statement of Operations and foreign currency translation gains (losses) have been included as a component of the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Loss.
Variable interest entities
Variable interest entities. The consolidation of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is required when an enterprise has a controlling financial interest. A controlling financial interest in a VIE will have both of the following characteristics: (a) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and (b) the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
Investments
Investments. We have made strategic investments in development stage and emerging companies. We record these investments as equity method investments or investments available for sale based on our percentage of ownership and whether we have significant influence over the operations of the investees. Investments for which it is not practical to estimate fair value and which we do not have significant influence are accounted for as cost method investments. For investments classified under the equity method of accounting, we record our proportionate share of their losses in Losses from investments in investees in our Consolidated Statement of Operations. Refer to Note 4. For investments classified as available for sale, we record changes in their fair value as unrealized gain or loss in Other comprehensive income (loss) based on their closing price per share at the end of each reporting period.
Recent accounting pronouncements
Recent accounting pronouncements. In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” ASU 2014-09, as amended, clarifies the principles for recognizing revenue and develops a common revenue standard for GAAP that removes inconsistencies and weaknesses in revenue requirements, provides a more robust framework for addressing revenue issues, improves comparability of revenue recognition practices across entities, industries, jurisdictions, and capital markets, provides more useful information to users of financial statements through improved disclosure requirements and simplifies the preparation of financial statements by reducing the number of requirements to which an entity must refer. ASU 2014-09 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017. Companies can choose to apply the ASU using either the full retrospective approach or a modified retrospective approach. We plan to adopt the ASU in the first quarter of 2018 using the full retrospective approach.
We continue to assess the impact of this ASU on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and disclosures. Our analysis includes reviewing current accounting policies and practices to identify potential differences that would result from applying the requirements under this new standard. We have reviewed certain contracts with its customers that we believe are representative of our revenue streams and continue to review additional contracts across our global business units. ASU 2014-09 requires increased disclosure which in turn is expected to require certain new processes. The determination of the impact of adoption of ASU 2014-09 on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and disclosures is ongoing, and, as such, we are not able to reasonably estimate the quantitative effect that the adoption of the new standard will have on our financial statements. Based on our preliminary assessment of this ASU, for our diagnostics segment, we generally do not expect any significant changes to the timing of revenue recognition or net income, but there will be a change in the presentation in the Statement of Operations. Under the ASU, the majority of the amounts that were historically classified as provision for bad debts, primarily related to patient responsibility, will be considered an implicit price concession in determining net revenues. Accordingly, we will report uncollectible balances associated with individual patients as a reduction of the transaction price and therefore as a reduction in net revenues when historically these amounts were classified as provision for bad debts within Selling, general and administrative expenses.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, “Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory,” which changes the measurement principle for entities that do not measure inventory using the last-in, first-out (“LIFO”) or retail inventory method from the lower of cost or market to lower of cost and net realizable value. ASU 2015-11 was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of ASU 2015-11 in the first quarter of 2017 did not have a significant impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes,” which requires deferred tax liabilities and assets to be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position.  The adoption of this ASU simplifies the presentation of deferred income taxes and reduces complexity without decreasing the usefulness of information provided to users of financial statements.  We early adopted the provisions of this ASU prospectively in the fourth quarter of 2015, and did not retrospectively adjust the prior periods.  The adoption of ASU 2015-17 did not have a significant impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, “Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10),” which addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. The ASU requires equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. ASU 2016-01 will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this new guidance on our Consolidated Financial Statements, but the primary effect will be the recognition of changes in the fair value of our available for sale investments in net income.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842),” which will require organizations that lease assets with lease terms of more than 12 months to recognize assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by those leases on their balance sheets. The ASU will also require new qualitative and quantitative disclosures to help investors and other financial statement users better understand the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. ASU 2016-02 will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this new guidance on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, “Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718),” which simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment award transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, classification on the statement of cash flows and accounting for forfeitures. ASU 2016-09 was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We adopted this standard in the first quarter of 2017. As required by ASU 2016-09, excess tax benefits are classified as an operating activity in our Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows and we have applied this provision prospectively. In addition, we have elected to estimate forfeitures over the course of a vesting period, rather than account for forfeitures as they occur. We adjust our forfeiture estimates based on the number of share-based awards that ultimately vest on at least an annual basis. As a result of the adoption of ASU 2016-09 in 2017, we recorded a cumulative-effect adjustment to reduce our deferred tax liabilities and reduce our accumulated deficit by $31.7 million with respect to excess tax benefits recognized in our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230),” which addresses the classification of eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. ASU 2016-15 will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this new guidance on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, “Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350),” which simplifies how an entity is required to test for goodwill impairment. ASU 2017-04 will be effective for annual or interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted after January 1, 2017. We are currently evaluating the impact of this new guidance on our Consolidated Financial Statements.