Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2013
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of presentation
Basis of presentation. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all information and notes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of only normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary to present fairly the Company’s results of operations, financial position and cash flows have been made. The results of operations and cash flows for the three and six months ended June 30, 2013, are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations and cash flows that may be reported for the remainder of 2013 or for future periods. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2012.
Reclassifications. Certain prior year amounts in the condensed consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform with the 2013 presentation. Due to the acquisition of OPKO OURLab, LLC (formerly Prost-Data, Inc.), our CLIA-certified laboratory business (“OURLab”) in December 2012, we changed our segment presentation to include diagnostics as a reportable segment. As a result of this change in reportable segments, we restated certain prior year amounts in the condensed consolidated financial statements to conform with the 2013 presentation. These reclassifications had no impact on our results of operations.
Principles of consolidation
Principles of consolidation. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of OPKO Health, Inc., our wholly-owned subsidiaries and variable interest entities (“VIEs”) in which we are deemed to be the primary beneficiary. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates
Use of estimates. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents include short-term, interest-bearing instruments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of purchase. We also consider all highly liquid investments with original maturities at the date of purchase of 90 days or less as cash equivalents. These investments include money markets, bank deposits, certificates of deposit and U.S. treasury securities.
Inventories. Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market (net realizable value). Cost is determined by the first-in, first-out method. We consider such factors as the amount of inventory on hand, estimated time required to sell such inventories, remaining shelf-life, and current market conditions to determine whether inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill and Intangible Assets. Goodwill represents the difference between the purchase price and the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired when accounted for by the purchase method of accounting and arose from our acquisitions. Goodwill and other intangible assets acquired in business combinations, licensing and other transactions at June 30, 2013 and December 31, 2012 were $364.9 million and $176.2 million, respectively.
Assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations, licensing and other transactions are recognized at the date of acquisition at their respective fair values. Any excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values of the net assets acquired is recognized as goodwill. We determined the fair value of intangible assets, including in-process research and development (“IPR&D”), using the “income method.”
Goodwill is tested at least annually for impairment, or when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable, on an enterprise level by assessing qualitative factors or performing a quantitative analysis in determining whether it is more likely than not that its fair value exceeds the carrying value.
Fair value measurements
Fair value measurements. The carrying amounts of our cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments. Investments that are considered available for sale as of June 30, 2013 are carried at fair value.
Short-term investments, which we invest in from time to time, include bank deposits, corporate notes, U.S. treasury securities and U.S. government agency securities with original maturities of greater than 90 days and remaining maturities of less than one year. Long-term investments include corporate notes, U.S. treasury securities and U.S. government agency securities with maturities greater than one year.
In evaluating the fair value information, considerable judgment is required to interpret the market data used to develop the estimates. The use of different market assumptions and/or different valuation techniques may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts. Accordingly, the estimates of fair value presented herein may not be indicative of the amounts that could be realized in a current market exchange.
Contingent consideration
Contingent consideration. Each period we revalue the contingent consideration obligations associated with certain acquisitions to their fair value and record increases in the fair value as contingent consideration expense and decreases in the fair value as contingent consideration income. Changes in contingent consideration result from changes in the assumptions regarding probabilities of successful achievement of related milestones, the estimated timing in which the milestones are achieved and the discount rate used to estimate the fair value of the liability. Contingent consideration may change significantly as our development programs progress, revenue estimates evolve and additional data is obtained, impacting our assumptions. The assumptions used in estimating fair value require significant judgment. The use of different assumptions and judgments could result in a materially different estimate of fair value which may have a material impact on our results from operations and financial position.
Derivative financial instruments
Derivative financial instruments. We record derivative financial instruments on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at their fair value and recognize the changes in the fair value in our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations, when they occur, the only exception being derivatives that qualify as hedges. For the derivative instrument to qualify as a hedge, we are required to meet strict hedge effectiveness and contemporaneous documentation requirements at the initiation of the hedge and assess the hedge effectiveness on an ongoing basis over the life of the hedge. At June 30, 2013 and December 31, 2012, our forward contracts for inventory purchases did not meet the documentation requirements to be designated as hedges. Accordingly, we recognize all changes in the fair values of our derivatives instruments in Fair value changes of derivatives instruments, net, in our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Revenue recognition
Revenue recognition. Generally, we recognize revenue from product sales when goods are shipped and title and risk of loss transfer to our customers. Our estimates for sales returns and allowances are based upon the historical patterns of product returns and allowances taken, matched against the sales from which they originated, and management’s evaluation of specific factors that may increase or decrease the risk of product returns.
Revenue for services is recognized on the accrual basis at the time test results are reported, which approximates when services are provided. Services are provided to certain patients covered by various third-party payer programs including various managed care organizations, as well as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Billings for services under third-party payer programs are included in sales net of allowances for contractual discounts and allowances for differences between the amounts billed and estimated program payment amounts. Adjustments to the estimated payment amounts based on final settlement with the programs are recorded upon settlement as an adjustment to revenue. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2013, revenue from services also includes $0.2 million and $0.4 million, respectively, of revenue related to our consulting agreement with Neovasc, Inc. (“Neovasc”) and to revenue related to molecular diagnostics collaboration agreements. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2012, revenue from services included $0.1 million and $0.2 million, respectively, of revenue related to our consulting agreement with Neovasc and to revenue related to molecular diagnostics collaboration agreements. We recognize this revenue on a straight-line basis over the contractual term of the agreements.
Revenue from transfer of intellectual property includes revenue related to the sale, license or transfer of intellectual property such as upfront license payments, license fees and milestone payments received through our license, collaboration and commercialization agreements. We analyze our multiple-element arrangements to determine whether the elements can be separated and accounted for individually as separate units of accounting.
Non-refundable license fees for the out-license of our technology are recognized depending on the provisions of each agreement. We recognize non-refundable upfront license payments as revenue upon receipt if the license has standalone value and the fair value of our undelivered obligations, if any, can be determined. If the license is considered to have standalone value but the fair value of any of the undelivered items cannot be determined, the license payments are recognized as revenue over the period of our performance for such undelivered items or services. License fees with ongoing involvement or performance obligations are recorded as deferred revenue, included in Accrued expenses or Other long-term liabilities, when received and generally are recognized ratably over the period of such performance obligation only after both the license period has commenced and we have delivered the technology.
The assessment of our obligations and related performance periods requires significant management judgment. If an agreement contains research and development obligations, the relevant time period for the research and development phase is based on management estimates and could vary depending on the outcome of clinical trials and the regulatory approval process. Such changes could materially impact the revenue recognized, and as a result, management reviews the estimates related to the relevant time period of research and development on a quarterly basis. For the six months ended June 30, 2013, we recorded $14.8 million of revenue from the transfer of intellectual property, of which $12.5 million related to the sale of substantially all of our assets in the field of RNA interference to RXi Pharmaceuticals Corporation (“RXi”) during the first quarter of 2013. Refer to Note 5.
Revenue from milestone payments related to arrangements under which we have continuing performance obligations are recognized as Revenue from transfer of intellectual property upon achievement of the milestone only if all of the following conditions are met: the milestone payments are non-refundable; there was substantive uncertainty at the date of entering into the arrangement that the milestone would be achieved; the milestone is commensurate with either the vendor’s performance to achieve the milestone or the enhancement of the value of the delivered item by the vendor; the milestone relates solely to past performance; and the amount of the milestone is reasonable in relation to the effort expended or the risk associated with the achievement of the milestone. If any of these conditions are not met, the milestone payments are not considered to be substantive and are, therefore, deferred and recognized as Revenue from transfer of intellectual property over the term of the arrangement as we complete our performance obligations.
Allowance for doubtful accounts
Allowance for doubtful accounts. We analyze accounts receivable and historical bad debt levels, customer credit worthiness and current economic trends when evaluating the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts using the specific identification method. Our reported net loss is directly affected by our estimate of the collectability of accounts receivable.
Equity-based compensation
Equity-based compensation. We measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. That cost is recognized in the statement of operations over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award. We record excess tax benefits, realized from the exercise of stock options as a financing cash inflow rather than as a reduction of taxes paid in cash flow from operations. Equity-based compensation arrangements to non-employees are recorded at their fair value on the measurement date. The measurement of equity-based compensation is subject to periodic adjustment as the underlying equity instruments vest.
Segment reporting
Segment reporting. Our chief operating decision-maker (“CODM”) is comprised of our executive management with the oversight of our Board of Directors. Our CODM reviews our operating results and operating plans and makes resource allocation decisions on a Company-wide or aggregate basis. We currently manage our operations in two reportable segments, pharmaceuticals and diagnostics. The pharmaceuticals segment consists of two operating segments, our (i) pharmaceutical research and development segment which is focused on the research and development of pharmaceutical products and vaccines, and (ii) the pharmaceutical operations we acquired in Chile, Mexico, Israel, Spain and Brazil. The diagnostics segment consists of two operating segments, our (i) pathology operations we acquired through the acquisition of OURLab and (ii) point-of-care and molecular diagnostics operations. There are no inter-segment sales. We evaluate the performance of each segment based on operating profit or loss. There is no inter-segment allocation of interest expense and income taxes.
Variable interest entities
Variable interest entities. The consolidation of VIEs is required when an enterprise has a controlling financial interest. A controlling financial interest in a VIE will have both of the following characteristics: (a) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and (b) the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
Investments. We have made strategic investments in development stage and emerging companies. We record these investments as equity method investments or investments available for sale based on our percentage of ownership and whether we have significant influence over the operations of the investees. For investments classified under the equity method of accounting, we record our proportionate share of their losses in Losses from investments in investees in our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations. Refer to Note 5. For investments classified as available for sale, we record changes in their fair value as unrealized gain or loss in Other comprehensive loss based on their closing price per share at the end of each reporting period.
Recent accounting pronouncements
Recent accounting pronouncements. In February 2013, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2013-2, Reporting of Amounts Reclassified Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income, (“ASU 2013-2”). ASU 2013-2 requires the presentation of reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income in either (1)the notes or (2)the face of the financial statements. We adopted ASU 2013-2 for our first quarter ended March 31, 2013. The adoption of ASU 2013-2 did not have a material impact in our condensed consolidated financial statements, but did require certain additional disclosures.