Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2015
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Basis of presentation. The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. and with the instructions to Form 10-K and of Regulation S-X.
Principles of Consolidation
Principles of consolidation. The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of OPKO Health, Inc. and of our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
Use of estimates. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ significantly from these estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents include short-term, interest-bearing instruments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of purchase. We also consider all highly liquid investments with original maturities at the date of purchase of 90 days or less as cash equivalents. These investments include money markets, bank deposits, certificates of deposit and U.S. treasury securities.
Inventories. Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market (net realizable value). Cost is determined by the first-in, first-out method. We consider such factors as the amount of inventory on hand, estimated time required to sell such inventories, remaining shelf-life, and current market conditions to determine whether inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Inventories at our diagnostics segment consist primarily of purchased laboratory supplies, which is used in our testing laboratories.
Pre-launch inventories. We may accumulate commercial quantities of certain product candidates prior to the date we anticipate that such products will receive final U.S. FDA approval.  The accumulation of such pre-launch inventories involves the risk that such products may not be approved for marketing by the FDA on a timely basis, or ever.  This risk notwithstanding, we may accumulate pre-launch inventories of certain products when such action is appropriate in relation to the commercial value of the product launch opportunity.  In accordance with our policy, this pre-launch inventory is expensed. 
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill and intangible assets. Goodwill represents the difference between the purchase price and the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired when accounted for by the acquisition method of accounting and arose from our acquisitions. Refer to Note 5. Goodwill, in-process research and development (“IPR&D”) and other intangible assets acquired in business combinations, licensing and other transactions at December 31, 2015 and 2014, were $2.2 billion and $1.1 billion, respectively.
Assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations, licensing and other transactions are generally recognized at the date of acquisition at their respective fair values. We determined the fair value of intangible assets, including IPR&D, using the “income method.”
Goodwill is tested at least annually for impairment, or when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable, by assessing qualitative factors or performing a quantitative analysis in determining whether it is more likely than not that its fair value exceeds the carrying value.
Intangible assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable, although IPR&D is required to be tested at least annually until the project is completed or abandoned. Upon obtaining regulatory approval, the IPR&D asset is then accounted for as a finite-lived intangible asset and amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life. If the project is abandoned, the IPR&D asset is charged to expense.
We amortize intangible assets with definite lives on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, currently ranging from 3 to 20 years. We use the straight-line method of amortization as there is no reliably determinable pattern in which the economic benefits of our intangible assets are consumed or otherwise used up
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value measurements. The carrying amounts of our cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and short-term debt approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments. Investments that are considered available for sale as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 are carried at fair value.
In evaluating the fair value information, considerable judgment is required to interpret the market data used to develop the estimates. The use of different market assumptions and/or different valuation techniques may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts. Accordingly, the estimates of fair value presented herein may not be indicative of the amounts that could be realized in a current market exchange.
Contingent Consideration
Contingent consideration. Each period we revalue the contingent consideration obligations associated with certain prior acquisitions to their fair value and record increases in the fair value as contingent consideration expense and decreases in the fair value as a reduction in contingent consideration expense. Changes in contingent consideration result from changes in the assumptions regarding probabilities of successful achievement of related milestones, the estimated timing in which the milestones are achieved and the discount rate used to estimate the fair value of the liability. Contingent consideration may change significantly as our development programs progress, revenue estimates evolve and additional data is obtained, impacting our assumptions. The assumptions used in estimating fair value require significant judgment. The use of different assumptions and judgments could result in a materially different estimate of fair value which may have a material impact on our results from operations and financial position.
Derivative Financial Instruments
Derivative financial instruments. We record derivative financial instruments on our Consolidated Balance Sheet at their fair value and recognize the changes in the fair value in our Consolidated Statement of Operations when they occur, the only exception being derivatives that qualify as hedges. For the derivative instrument to qualify as a hedge, we are required to meet strict hedge effectiveness and contemporaneous documentation requirements at the initiation of the hedge and assess the hedge effectiveness on an ongoing basis over the life of the hedge. At December 31, 2015 and 2014, our forward contracts for inventory purchases did not meet the documentation requirements to be designated as hedges. Accordingly, we recognize all changes in the fair values of our derivatives instruments, net, in our Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Property, Plant, Equipment and Investment Properties
Property, Plant and Equipment. Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally five to ten years and includes amortization expense for assets capitalized under capital leases. The estimated useful lives by asset class are as follows: software - 3 years, machinery, medical and other equipment - 5-8 years, furniture and fixtures - 5-10 years, leasehold improvements - the lesser of their useful life or the lease term, buildings and improvements - 10-40 years, automobiles and aircraft - 5-7 years. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets. Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, then an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value, or carrying amount for cost basis assets, of the asset.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes. Income taxes are accounted for under the asset-and-liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and the respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in operations in the period that includes the enactment date. We periodically evaluate the realizability of our net deferred tax assets. Our tax accruals are analyzed periodically and adjustments are made as events occur to warrant such adjustment.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue recognition. Revenue for laboratory services is recognized at the time test results are reported, which approximates when services are provided. Services are provided to patients covered by various third-party payer programs including various managed care organizations, as well as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Billings for services under third-party payer programs are included in revenue net of allowances for contractual discounts and allowances for differences between the amounts billed and estimated program payment amounts. Adjustments to the estimated payment amounts based on final settlement with the programs are recorded upon settlement as an adjustment to revenue. For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, approximately 9% and 5%, respectively, of our revenues were derived directly from the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The increase in revenues from laboratory services, including revenue from Medicare and Medicaid programs, is due to the acquisition of Bio-Reference in August 2015.
Generally, we recognize revenue from product sales when goods are shipped and title and risk of loss transfer to our customers. Our estimates for sales returns and allowances are based upon the historical patterns of product returns and allowances taken, matched against the sales from which they originated, and management’s evaluation of specific factors that may increase or decrease the risk of product returns.
Revenue from transfer of intellectual property includes revenue related to the sale, license or transfer of intellectual property such as upfront license payments, license fees and milestone payments received through our license, collaboration and commercialization agreements. We analyze our multiple-element arrangements to determine whether the elements can be separated and accounted for individually as separate units of accounting.
Non-refundable license fees for the out-license of our technology are recognized depending on the provisions of each agreement. We recognize non-refundable upfront license payments as revenue upon receipt if the license has standalone value and qualifies for treatment as a separate unit of accounting under multiple-element arrangement guidance. License fees with ongoing involvement or performance obligations that do not have standalone value are recorded as deferred revenue, included in Accrued expenses or Other long-term liabilities, when received and generally are recognized ratably over the period of such performance obligations only after both the license period has commenced and we have delivered the technology.
The assessment of our obligations and related performance periods requires significant management judgment. If an agreement contains research and development obligations, the relevant time period for the research and development phase is based on management estimates and could vary depending on the outcome of clinical trials and the regulatory approval process. Such changes could materially impact the revenue recognized, and as a result, management reviews the estimates related to the relevant time period of research and development on a quarterly basis. For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 we recorded $81.9 million, $5.5 million and $16.7 million of revenue from the transfer of intellectual property, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2015, revenue from the transfer of intellectual property included $15.0 million related to a milestone payment that TESARO, Inc. (“TESARO”) paid us under our license agreement with them and $65.5 million related to the Pfizer Transaction. Refer to Note 14. For the year ended December 31, 2014, $5.0 million related to a milestone payment that TESARO paid us under our license agreement with them. For the year ended December 31, 2013, $12.5 million related to the sale of substantially all of our assets in the field of RNA interference to RXi Pharmaceuticals Corporation (“RXi”) and $3.8 million related to the rights granted to OAO Pharmsynthez (“Pharmsynthez”) for certain technologies.
Revenue from milestone payments related to arrangements under which we have continuing performance obligations are recognized as Revenue from transfer of intellectual property upon achievement of the milestone only if all of the following conditions are met: the milestone payments are non-refundable; there was substantive uncertainty at the date of entering into the arrangement that the milestone would be achieved; the milestone is commensurate with either our performance to achieve the milestone or the enhancement of the value of the delivered item by us; the milestone relates solely to past performance; and the amount of the milestone is reasonable in relation to the effort expended or the risk associated with the achievement of the milestone. If any of these conditions are not met, the milestone payments are not considered to be substantive and are, therefore, deferred and recognized as Revenue from transfer of intellectual property over the term of the arrangement as we complete our performance obligations.
Concentrations of Credit Risk and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Concentration of Credit Risk and Allowance for doubtful accounts. Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of accounts receivable. Substantially all of our accounts receivable are with companies in the health care industry and individuals. However, credit risk is limited due to the number of our clients as well as their dispersion across many different geographic regions.
While we have receivables due from federal and state governmental agencies, we do not believe that such receivables represent a credit risk since the related health care programs are funded by federal and state governments, and payment is primarily dependent upon submitting appropriate documentation. Accounts receivable balances (prior to allowance for doubtful accounts and net of contractual adjustments) from Medicare and Medicaid were $26.1 million and $0.6 million at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
The portion of our accounts receivable due from patients comprises the largest portion of credit risk. At December 31, 2015 and 2014, receivables due from patients represent approximately 7.5% and 0.5% of our consolidated accounts receivable (prior to allowance for doubtful accounts and net of contractual adjustments).
We assess the collectability of accounts receivable balances by considering factors such as historical collection experience, customer credit worthiness, the age of accounts receivable balances, regulatory changes and current economic conditions and trends that may affect a customer’s ability to pay. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Our reported net income (loss) is directly affected by our estimate of the collectability of accounts receivable
Equity-based Compensation
Equity-based compensation. We measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. That cost is recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Operations over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award. We record excess tax benefits, realized from the exercise of stock options as a financing cash inflow and as a reduction of taxes paid in cash flow from operations. Equity-based compensation arrangements to non-employees are recorded at their fair value on the measurement date. The measurement of equity-based compensation to non-employees is subject to periodic adjustment as the underlying equity instruments vest.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses. Research and development expenses include external and internal expenses, partially offset by third-party grants and fundings arising from collaboration agreements. External expenses include clinical and non-clinical activities performed by contract research organizations, lab services, purchases of drug and diagnostic product materials and manufacturing development costs. Research and development employee-related expenses include salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation expense. Other internal research and development expenses are incurred to support overall research and development activities and include expenses related to general overhead and facilities. We expense these costs in the period in which they are incurred. We estimate our liabilities for research and development expenses in order to match the recognition of expenses to the period in which the actual services are received. As such, accrued liabilities related to third party research and development activities are recognized based upon our estimate of services received and degree of completion of the services in accordance with the specific third party contract.
We record expense for in-process research and development projects acquired as asset acquisitions which have not reached technological feasibility and which have no alternative future use. For in-process research and development projects acquired in business combinations, the in-process research and development project is capitalized and evaluated for impairment until the development process has been completed. Once the development process has been completed the asset will be amortized over its remaining useful life.
Segment Reporting
Segment reporting. Our chief operating decision-maker (“CODM”) is Phillip Frost, M.D., our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Our CODM reviews our operating results and operating plans and makes resource allocation decisions on a Company-wide or aggregate basis. We currently manage our operations in two reportable segments, pharmaceutical and diagnostics.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and Handling Costs. We do not charge customers for shipping and handling costs. Shipping and handling costs are classified as Cost of revenues in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Variable Interest Entities
Variable interest entities. The consolidation of variable interest entities (“VIE”) is required when an enterprise has a controlling financial interest. A controlling financial interest in a VIE will have both of the following characteristics: (a) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and (b) the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
Investments. We have made strategic investments in development stage and emerging companies. We record these investments as equity method investments or investments available for sale based on our percentage of ownership and whether we have significant influence over the operations of the investees. Investments for which it is not practical to estimate fair value and which we do not have significant influence are accounted for as cost method investments. For investments classified under the equity method of accounting, we record our proportionate share of their losses in Losses from investments in investees in our Consolidated Statement of Operations. Refer to Note 4. For investments classified as available for sale, we record changes in their fair value as unrealized gain or loss in Other comprehensive income (loss) based on their closing price per share at the end of each reporting period.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent accounting pronouncements. In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”), ASU No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” ASU No. 2014-09 clarifies the principles for recognizing revenue and develops a common revenue standard for GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards that removes inconsistencies and weaknesses in revenue requirements, provides a more robust framework for addressing revenue issues, improves comparability of revenue recognition practices across entities, industries, jurisdictions, and capital markets, provides more useful information to users of financial statements through improved disclosure requirements and simplifies the preparation of financial statements by reducing the number of requirements to which an entity must refer. ASU No. 2014-09 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017. Companies can choose to apply the ASU using either the full retrospective approach or a modified retrospective approach. We are currently evaluating both methods of adoption and the impact that the adoption of this ASU will have on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In June 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-12, “Accounting for Share-Based Payments When the Terms of an Award Provide That a Performance Target Could Be Achieved after the Requisite Service Period (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force).” ASU No. 2014-12 requires that a performance target that affects vesting and that could be achieved after the requisite service period be treated as a performance condition. ASU No. 2014-12 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2015. Earlier adoption is permitted. The amendments can be applied either prospectively to all awards granted or modified after the effective date or retrospectively to all awards with performance targets that are outstanding as of the beginning of the earliest annual period presented in the financial statements and to all new or modified awards. We expect to apply the ASU prospectively and do not expect the adoption to have an impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, “Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern,” to provide guidance on management’s responsibility in evaluating whether there is substantial doubt about a company’s ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. ASU 2014-15 is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016 with early adoption permitted. We do not believe the impact of our pending adoption of ASU 2014-15 on our Consolidated Financial Statements will be material.
In February 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-02, “Consolidation (Topic 810): Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis,” which amends current consolidation guidance including changes to both the variable and voting interest models used by companies to evaluate whether an entity should be consolidated. The requirements from ASU 2015-02 are effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2015, with early adoption permitted. We do not believe the impact of our pending adoption of ASU 2015-02 on our Consolidated Financial Statements will be material.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, “Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory,” which changes the measurement principle for entities that do not measure inventory using the last-in, first-out (“LIFO”) or retail inventory method from the lower of cost or market to lower of cost and net realizable value. ASU 2015-11 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this new guidance on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In September 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-16, “Business Combinations (Topic 805): Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments,” which replaces the requirement that an acquirer in a business combination account for measurement period adjustments retrospectively with a requirement that an acquirer recognize adjustments to the provisional amounts that are identified during the measurement period in the reporting period in which the adjustment amounts are determined. ASU 2015-16 requires that the acquirer record, in the same period’s financial statements, the effect on earnings of changes in depreciation, amortization, or other income effects, if any, as a result of the change to the provisional amounts, calculated as if the accounting had been completed at the acquisition date. ASU 2015-16 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The guidance is to be applied prospectively to adjustments to provisional amounts that occur after the effective date of the guidance, with earlier application permitted for financial statements that have not been issued. Our early adoption of ASU 2015-16 in the third quarter of 2015 did not have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes,” which requires deferred tax liabilities and assets to be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position.  ASU 2015-17 is effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. Earlier application is permitted for all entities as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period. We adopted the provisions of this ASU prospectively in the fourth quarter of 2015, and did not retrospectively adjust the prior periods.  The adoption of this ASU will simplify the presentation of deferred income taxes and reduce complexity without decreasing the usefulness of information provided to users of financial statements.  The adoption of ASU 2015-17 did not have a significant impact on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.